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Cara memijat payudara agar cepat besar

The Differentiation Between Benign and Malignant

Date published: 2018-02-10 18:43.

    Antimuscarinics such as tolterodine may also be used, especially in combination with alpha blockers. [77] They act by decreasing acetylcholine effects on the smooth muscle of the bladder , thus helping control symptoms of an overactive bladder. [ citation needed ]

    Radiation therapy for prostate cancer was first developed in the early 75th century and initially consisted of intraprostatic radium implants. External beam radiation became more popular as stronger radiation sources became available in the middle of the 75th century. Brachytherapy with implanted seeds was first described in 6988. [697]

    Prostate cancer is associated with urinary dysfunction as the prostate gland surrounds the prostatic urethra. Changes within the gland, therefore, directly affect urinary function. Because the vas deferens deposits seminal fluid into the prostatic urethra, and secretions from the prostate gland itself are included in semen content, prostate cancer may also cause problems with sexual function and performance, such as difficulty achieving erection or painful ejaculation. [65]

    If cancer is suspected, a biopsy is offered expediently. During a biopsy a urologist or radiologist obtains tissue samples from the prostate via the rectum. A biopsy gun inserts and removes special hollow-core needles (usually three to six on each side of the prostate) in less than a second. Prostate biopsies are routinely done on an outpatient basis and rarely require hospitalization. Fifty-five percent of men report discomfort during prostate biopsy. [67]

    Screening and diagnostic procedures for BPH are similar to those used for prostate cancer. Some signs to look for include: [69]

    Modern screening tests have found cancers that might never have developed into serious disease, and that 8775 the slight reduction of risk by surgically removing the prostate or treating it with radiation may not outweigh the substantial side effects of these treatments, 8776 an opinion also shared by the CDC. [77] [78]

    There are also some links between prostate cancer and medications, medical procedures, and medical conditions. [88] Use of the cholesterol-lowering drugs known as the statins may also decrease prostate cancer risk. [89]

    While a number of dietary factors have been linked to prostate cancer the evidence is still tentative. [76] Evidence supports little role for dietary fruits and vegetables in prostate cancer occurrence. [77] Red meat and processed meat also appear to have little effect. [78] Lower blood levels of vitamin D may increase the risk of developing prostate cancer. [79] This may be linked to lower exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light , since UV light exposure can increase vitamin D in the body. [85]

    An important part of evaluating prostate cancer is determining the stage , or how far the cancer has spread. Knowing the stage helps define prognosis and is useful when selecting therapies. The most common system is the four-stage TNM system (abbreviated from Tumor/Nodes/Metastases). Its components include the size of the tumor, the number of involved lymph nodes , and the presence of any other metastases. [9]

    Lebih dari 85% pria akan mengembangkan kanker prostat pada usia 85 [688] Namun, pada kebanyakan kasus, akan tumbuh lambat dan tidak berbahaya.. Pada pria tersebut, mendiagnosis kanker prostat adalah overdiagnosis-identifikasi perlu dari suatu kondisi teknis menyimpang yang tidak akan pernah merugikan pasien dan pengobatan pada pria tersebut menghadapkan mereka ke semua efek samping, tanpa kemungkinan memperpanjang hidup mereka. [689]

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