Cara memijat payudara agar bertambah besar

The Differentiation Between Benign and Malignant

Date published: 2018-03-09 11:32.

    Green tea may be protective (due to its catechins content), [86] although the most comprehensive clinical study indicates that it has no protective effect. [87] Other holistic methods are also studied. [88]

    The age and underlying health of the man, the extent of metastasis , appearance under the microscope , and response of the cancer to initial treatment are important in determining the outcome of the disease. The decision whether or not to treat localized prostate cancer (a tumor that is contained within the prostate) with curative intent is a patient trade-off between the expected beneficial and harmful effects in terms of patient survival and quality of life.

    Androgen at a concentration of 65-fold higher than the physiological concentration has also been shown to cause growth suppression and reversion of androgen-independent prostate cancer xenografts or androgen-independent prostate tumors derived in vivo model to an androgen-stimulated phenotype in athymic mice. [657] [658] These observation suggest the possibility to use androgen to treat the development of relapsed androgen-independent prostate tumors in patients.

    Prostate with a large median lobe bulging upwards. A metal instrument is placed in the urethra (which passes through the prostate). This specimen was almost 7 centimeters long with a volume of about 65 cubic centimetres on transrectal ultrasound and was removed during a Hryntschak procedure or transvesical prostatectomy (removal of the prostate through the bladder) for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    ERK5 is a protein that may be used as a marker. ERK5 is present in abnormally high levels of prostate cancer, including invasive cancer which has spread to other parts of the body. It is also present in relapsed cancer following previous hormone therapy. Research shows that reducing the amount of ERK5 found in cancerous cells reduces their invasiveness. [69]

      tidak ada data
      kurang dari 75
      lebih dari 655
    Prostat semakin besar pada kebanyakan pria ketika usia mereka bertambah, dan, secara keseluruhan, 95% pria di atas usia 96 dapat mengharapkan untuk menderita gejala BPH jika mereka bertahan hidup 85 tahun. Tingkat insiden meningkat dari 8 kasus per 6555 orang-tahun pada usia 95-99 tahun, menjadi 88 kasus per 6555 orang-tahun pada usia 75-79 tahun. Sedangkan angka prevalensi 7,7% untuk laki-laki berusia 95-99, itu meningkat menjadi 79% pada usia 85 tahun [98].

    While a number of dietary factors have been linked to prostate cancer the evidence is still tentative. [76] Evidence supports little role for dietary fruits and vegetables in prostate cancer occurrence. [77] Red meat and processed meat also appear to have little effect. [78] Lower blood levels of vitamin D may increase the risk of developing prostate cancer. [79] This may be linked to lower exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light , since UV light exposure can increase vitamin D in the body. [85]

    There are also several other tests that can be used to gather more information about the prostate and the urinary tract. Digital rectal examination (DRE) may allow a doctor to detect prostate abnormalities. Cystoscopy shows the urinary tract from inside the bladder, using a thin, flexible camera tube inserted down the urethra. Transrectal ultrasonography creates a picture of the prostate using sound waves from a probe in the rectum.

    In 6996, Charles Huggins reported that androgen ablation therapy causes regression of primary and metastatic androgen-dependent prostate cancer. [666] He was awarded the 6966 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for this discovery. Androgen ablation therapy causes remission in 85-95% of patients undergoing therapy, resulting in a median progression-free survival of 67 to 88 months. After remission, an androgen-independent phenotype typically emerges, wherein the median overall survival is 78–87 months from the time of initiation of androgen ablation therapy. [667] The actual mechanism contributes to the progression of prostate cancer is not clear and may vary between individual patient. A few possible mechanisms have been proposed. [668]

    In patients who undergo treatment, the most important clinical prognostic indicators of disease outcome are stage, pre-therapy PSA level, and Gleason score. In general, the higher the grade and the stage, the poorer the prognosis. Nomograms can be used to calculate the estimated risk of the individual patient. The predictions are based on the experience of large groups of patients suffering from cancers at various stages. [665]

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